Ray Casting Algorithm: How to determine with VBA if a point is inside a polyline in AutoCAD

Someone recently asked about determining if a point resides within a polyline using VBA. There are a few ways to achieve this, some being more complex than others, each with their own advantages. However, there is one way that is particularly simple within the AutoCAD® environment, as we are able to use built in features such as the IntersectWith method.

The concept for finding out if a point is within a polyline is this – if we were to draw a line from the point in any direction to infinity, the number of intersections the line would have with the polyline would be an odd number. Think about it – if it was a square, it would cross the polyline once. For irregular shapes where the line crosses it many times, it firstly has to exit the shape – any re-entry to the shape must have a corresponding exit – so if the point is within the polyline, any line eminating from it to infinity must cross the boundary an odd number of times. And for the same reason, any point outside the boundary must cross the boundary an even number of times.

So, armed with this knowledge, we need a way to actually achieve this in AutoCAD®. And what better way of doing so is there than to simply draw a Ray in any direction, and find out how many intersections with the boundary there are? Well, that’s exactly what this code does:

Option Explicit

Sub main()
    Dim selPolyline As AcadLWPolyline
    Dim selPoint As AcadPoint
    Dim pnt As Variant
    Randomize 'Initialise random number generator
    ThisDrawing.Utility.GetEntity selPolyline, pnt, "Pick polyline"
    ThisDrawing.Utility.GetEntity selPoint, pnt, "Pick point"
    If isPointInPolyline(selPolyline, selPoint) Then
        ThisDrawing.Utility.Prompt "The point resides within the polyline"
        
    Else
        ThisDrawing.Utility.Prompt "The point resides outside the polyline"
    End If
End Sub

Function isPointInPolyline(pl As AcadLWPolyline, pnt As AcadPoint) As Boolean
    Dim p1 As Variant
    Dim p2 As Variant
    Dim ray As AcadRay
    Dim arr As Variant
    Dim upperbound As Long
    Dim IntersectionCount As Long
    p1 = pnt.Coordinates
    p2 = p1
    ' edit on 03/12/2010 for increased reliability
    ' horizontal ray exchanged for a ray with a random direction
    p2(0) = p2(0) + 1 - Rnd * 2 'offset x coordinate for secondary point in Ray by random amount
    p2(1) = p2(1) + 1 - Rnd * 2 'offset y coordinate for secondary point in Ray by random amount
    ' end of edit
    Set ray = thisSpace.AddRay(p1, p2)
    arr = ray.IntersectWith(pl, acExtendNone)
    upperbound = UBound(arr)
    If upperbound = -1 Then
    ' No intersections - the point must not be inside the polyline
    ' Assumes no elevation
        isPointInPolyline = False
    Else
        IntersectionCount = (upperbound + 1) / 3
        'number of elements in array is equal to the upperbound + 1 because of element zero
        'we divide by 3 to find the number of individual intersections because each has
        '3 coordinates - X, Y and Z
        
        If IntersectionCount Mod 2 = 0 Then
        'There are an even number of intersections - it cannot be inside the polyline
            isPointInPolyline = False
        Else
        'There are an odd number of intersections - it must be inside the polyline
            isPointInPolyline = True
        End If
        
    End If
    ray.Delete
End Function

Function thisSpace() As AcadBlock
    If ThisDrawing.ActiveSpace = acModelSpace Then
        Set thisSpace = ThisDrawing.ModelSpace
    Else
        Set thisSpace = ThisDrawing.PaperSpace
    End If
End Function

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Will